HISTORY OF SHOTOKAN KARATE-DO
Shotokan Karate is a form of unarmed combat - "Karate" means "empty hand".
However the "karate-ka" also uses their feet, knees and elbows. Karate as a martial art was cultivated in the island of Okinawa,
south of mainland Japan. After many years, the development of Karate as a means of self defence gained tremendous popularity,
as the Japanese government on the island had prohibited the use of weapons. Because of this national policy, the self defence
techniques were developed into a unique Okinawan martial art of "Karate" or "empty hand". In 1922, Master Gichin Funakoshi,
the founder of Shotokan Karate, introduced Karate to mainland Japan during the first National Athletic Exhibition held in
Tokyo. The demonstration turned out to be a great success due to the inspiring personality of Master Funakoshi. He taught
only one method, a total discipline, which represented a mixture of Okinawan styles. This method became known as Shotokan,
which literally means "Pine waves Hall".
O-SENSEI GICHIN FUNAKOSHI
Master Gichin Funakoshi is widely considered the primary "father" of modern karate
due to his efforts to introduce the Okinawan art to mainland Japan, from where it spread to the rest of the world. Funakoshi
Gichin was also the founder of what is now known as Shotokan karate. His style of karate originated from him having trained
under two famous Okinawan karate masters, Yasatsune Azato and Anko Itosu. After being observed by the Japanese Minister of
Education during a karate demonstration, Funakoshi was asked to bring his karate to Japan for instruction in the universities
there. His introduction of the previously "secret" art of karate allowed the martial arts to grow to previously unheard of
numbers. In 1936, Japanese karate-ka gathered donations to build the first official karate dojo, which they named Shotokan
in honour of Funakoshi Sensei.
The word Shotokan is comprised of three Kanji characters in Japanese - Sho To Kan.
The literal translation is Pine Waves Hall, and is synonymous with the tiger symbol and Shotokan Karate today.
Funakoshi's pen name was Shoto, and signs his works of calligraphy with his pen name. He would explain that the cool breezes,
which blew among the pine trees where he lived, made a sound like waves breaking the shore. When viewing the Pine trees blowing
at distance, it looked like a tiger’s tail.
The tiger, which is commonly used as the symbol of Shotokan implies
that the tiger never sleeps, therefore, is the keen alertness of the wakeful tiger.
THE DOJO KUN
Hitotsu. Jinkaku Kansei ni Tsutomuro Koto
One. Seek Perfection of Character
Makoto ni Michi wo Mamoru Koto
One. Be Faithful
Hitotsu. Doryoku no Seishin o Yashinau Koto
Reigi o Omonzuru Koto
One. Respect Others
Hitotsu. Kekki no Yu o Imashimuru Koto.
One. Refrain from
As you read the kun you will notice something. Each line begins with the number 1. Why? Why not
1,2,3, etc.? Well, Funakoshi sensei felt that no item of the kun was any more important than another. Therefore, each item
was number 1.
Karate is a life long challenge that is explained by the "Dojo Kun". Every effort in karate teaches you
commitment. Karate is an art of self-defence & the best defence is avoiding trouble.
The history of Shotokan karate actually began with Gichin Funakoshi's 1917 trip to Kyoto, where karate was demonstrated for
the first time in Japan, at the Butokuden. While the demonstration was successful and the Japanese interest was high, there
was no immediate rush to bring the Okinawan art to Japan on a formal basis. As taken as they were with it, the Japanese still
tended to be suspicious of anything purely Okinawan, and they found it expedient to view karate as an interesting sideshow.
This attitude could have been the end of karate in Japan had it not been for a fortuitous event on Mar. 6,1921 . On that date,
the Crown Prince (the Emperor Hirohito) of Japan visited Okinawa on his way to Europe. Seeking to impress the Prince with
the rich culture of Okinawa, the Department of Education asked Funakoshi to give a karate demonstration for him in the Great
Hall of Shuri Castle. So fascinated was the prince by the demonstration, that he spoke of it excitedly throughout the rest
of his voyage. Thus the Ministry of Education formally requested a karate demonstration be performed at the first National
Athletic Exhibition in Tokyo. Funakoshi was of course chosen to perform.
On the same day he gave the demonstration, he was approached by members of the Sho family,
direct descendants of Shotai, the last king of Okinawa, and asked to extend his visit. Humbled and inspired by their supplications,
Funakoshi agreed to stay for a few weeks. From Jlgoro Kano, the founder of judo, came a request to demonstrate karate at the
Kodokan, the judo headquarters To assist him with the demonstration, Funakoshi prevailed upon Shinkin Gima, a student et Tokyo
Shoka Daigaku,who had attained a high degree of proficiency in karate while still in Okinawa. At a private demonstration for
Kano and selected members of the Kodokan, Funakoshi performed the kata, kanku dad, and Gima performed naihanchii (now known
to the Japanese as tekkli). So impressed was Kano by the demonstration that he enthusiastically asked Funakoshi to prolong
his stay in Japan and to teach him the basics of karate. Funakoshi indeed taught Kano some basic blocks, punches, strikes,
and kicks, and Kano later incorporated some of these into an advanced judo kata.
The demonstration at the National Athletic Exhibition, and Kano's introductions to influential
Japanese, soon led to official requests for karate instruction by the military academy, the Tokyo Bar Association, and the
Society for Research in High School Physical Education. While eager to demonstrate before these groups, Funakoshi was struggling
with homesickness, worry about his family, and guilt over leaving his responsibilities behind. After correspondence with his
wife, in which she gave her blessing, Funakoshi decided to stay in Japan and fulfill what he now perceived to be his destiny:
to teach karate to the Japanese people.
While the Japanese in general were reluctant to endorse anything of Okinawan extraction, they
were more than eager to pursue almost anything popular with the upper classes. In less than nine months, karate had become
a fad with the intelligentsia. In 1922 Funakoshi established the first formal Japanese karate club at the Meisei Juku, a dormitory
and school for newly arrived Okinawan students in the Suidobata section of Tokyo To support himself, he cleaned the dormitory
during the day, often tending the garden and lawns, and taught karate in a lecture hall in the evening. Throwing himself completely
into his mission, he wrote the first book on karate, RyuRyu Kempo: Karate, published by Bukyo-sha in 1922.
An instant best-seller (by textbook standards), it went out of print prematurely, for a time,
when the book's plates were destroyed in the great Kanto earthquake of Sept. 1, 1923. The book was not printed again until
1926, when it was re-issued by Kobundo as Rentan Goshin Karate jitsu ("Strengthening of Willpower and Self-defense Through
Techniques of Karate"). Many of Funakoshi's finest pupils were lost in the earthquake also, and he was forced to take a job
making stencils at the Daiichi Sogo Bank in Kyobashi. Since this was some distance from the Meisei Juku, Funakoshi was invited
to move his dojo to the dojo of Hiromichi Nakayama, the great kendo teacher. For a great kendo sensei to allow another art
to be practiced in his dojo was quite unprecedented.
In 1924, at the age of 56, when most men are contemplating retirement, Funakoshi entered and
qualified in the Tokyo Invitational Prize Contest for Athletes. Throughout the 1920s and early 1930s, Funakoshi continued
to teach at Nakayama's kendo dojo. The number of active students increased steadily, until his fame brought him an invitation
to demonstrate karate before the Imperial Household.
In 1924, Funakoshi was asked by Prof. Shinyo Kasuya of the department of German language and
literature at Keio Universityto teach a group of students at the university. A club was soon organized with the sanction of
the university. The Keio club was the first collegiate karate club in Japan, and it is active to this day. By 1926 the Tokyo
University Karate Club was officially chartered, followed in the early 1930s by clubs at Takushoku, Chuo, Shodai (now called
Hitotsubashi University), Gakushu-in, Hosei, Nihon, Meiji, and others, until today there are over 200 collegiate karate clubs
in Japan. Karate made its greatest headway on campuses, but also through instruction to employee groups at companies such
as the Tokyo Department Store, Tokyo Railroad Co., the Matsuzakaya Department Stores, and others.
As karate grew in the 1930s, it spawned several ryu (schools or styles). Chojun Miyagi and
Kenwa Mabuni brought the goju-ryu and Shito-ryu styles from Okinawa, and in 1935 one of Funakoshi's most brilliant senior
students, Hironishi Ohtsuka, broke away, forming his own wado-ryu style. Many others formed styles, of course, but these four-Shotokan,
goju, wado, and Shito-comprise the bulk of Japanese karate. Early on, at least, there was very little bickering among the
leaders of the various schools It was perfectly acceptable, they believed, for different masters to teach in different ways;
after all, they were striving toward the same goal: perfection of human character through karate-do.
In 1935 karate men from all over Japan formed a committee that solicited funds to build a free-standing
karate dojo Construction on the building in Zoshigaya. Toshima Ward, began in mid-1935, and was completed in the spring of
1936 Gichin Funakoshi, at the age of 68, bowed and entered the world's first karate dojo in the spring of 1936. As a tribute
to him from karate students all over Japan, a plaque was hung over the door inscribed with the characters for "Shoto-kan,"
("the hall of Shoto").
By 1940, with Japan engaged in war on several fronts, Funakoshi's dojo was filled with eager
young men. Following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, Funakoshi's dojo was so crowded with students that they frequently
spilled over into the street and neighboring yards. Japan's defeat in World War I I of course brought to a temporary halt
the development of virtually all the martial arts, but only for a short time.
In 1944 Funakoshi's students-the university clubs, the Old Boys clubs, and the private dojos
all over Japan-officially organized themselves into the Nihon Karate Kyokai (Japan Karate Association, or JKA) and named Funakoshi
their chief instructor emeritus Isao Obata, the chairman, was the wealthy president of his own trading company; the first
JKA president, Kichinosuku Saigo, was a wealthy politician with major political influence These men had neither the time nor
the inclination to administer the affairs of such a large and burgeoning organization, and the board of directors immediately
hired a full-time, paid staff to run the organization. Masatomo Takagi, a business manager and a 5th dan in karate, was hired
as general secretary. Masatoshi Nakayama was made chief instructor, to conduct day-to-day training at the headquarters; Kimio
Ito was appointed director of administration; and Hidetaka Nishiyama was named chief of the instruction committee.
To understand what happened next to the JKA and it's export of karate to the rest of the world
some background will be useful Both ancestry and wealth contributed to a man's position within the class structure, and Japanese
institutions, especially the colleges and universities, reflect this state of affairs Even today, a family's wealth and position
determine to a large degree which university the children will attend, and a graduate's chances for success are strongly influenced
thereby. The "Big Three" colleges, in terms of social and political prestige, are Keio, Waseda, and Hosei These three, along
with Takushoku, also represented the best collegiate karate in Japan. Takushoku, however, was not part of the "establishment"
of colleges. Commonly called Takudai, it was created before World War II expressly for the purpose of training administrators
for overseas work.Takudai men therefore typically majored in economics, importing and exporting, and international law.
The types of jobs available to Takudai graduates were not considered prestigious by the old-line
university graduates, and a good deal of class friction was evident in the JKA between upper echelon Old Boys and highly expert
(in karate) but "lower class" Takudai men. Disputes arose over business practices, philosophy, and training methods. The class
division among administrators crystallized around the fact that the Takudai staff, Takagi and Nakayama among them, was being
paid for teaching karate. In April 1955 the JKA opened its first commercial dojo in the preview room of the Kataoka Movie
Center, and a strong campaign was launched for the recruitment of new students. Many old-line masters, chief among them Isao
Obata of Keio, felt it was absolutely immoral for a man to accept money for teaching the art Even those who would not deny
a man the right to be paid voiced opposition to placing karate on the market.
The Hosei Old Boys were the first to leave the JKA, followed by Obata and the Keio group. Unburdened
of the conserved ve Old Boys, the Takudai men pursued the development of karate in their own way; not surprisingly, in view
of their training, they chose to internationalize the art.
The Tadukai group thought the best way for an art like karate to gain international acceptance
was to give it a sporting aspect Turning karate into a sport with rules for competition was not new Since 1936 college clubs
had been conducting kokangeiko (exchange of courtesies and practice), in which they tested their techniques against each other
on a free-style basis. Without formal rules or supervision, however, these exchange and training sessions were, more often
than not, bloodbaths. The Old Boys refused to acknowledge the existence of such shenanigans because these bouts were obviously
opposed to the principles of karate as Funakoshi taught them.
Nevertheless, the JKA directors and leaders in other styles brought free-sparring into the
open, experimenting with it, debating it, and, finally, encouraging it. By 1950, virtually all the major styles of karate
in Japan were practicing some form of free-style sparring. The JKA contest rules, comprising three chapters and 16 articles,
were completed in Aug. 1956. Collegiate clubs and branch dojo immediately commenced staging tournaments to try contestant
skills and to train judges. This flurry of activity culminated in the 1st All Japan Karate-do Championship Tournament in June
Concurrent with their efforts to devise a workable set of contest rules, the JKA instituted
a stringent instructor training program. Only the cream of young karate men were admitted to the program, and only after graduating
honorably from college and attaining 2nd dan rank. In an intensive year of study, candidates were instructed not only in karate
but in psychology, physics, anatomy, business management, history and philosophy of physical education and sports, and other
subjects. On completing the training program (with 3rd dan and a dissertation) they were assigned to a year's teaching internship.
The results of this difficult apprenticeship were a dozen or so highly proficient karate men, well prepared to plant and nourish
their art overseas.
First to arrive in the U.S. were Hidetaka Nishiyama, Los Angeles, and Teruyuki Okazaki, Philadelphia,
both in 1961. Others followed in rapid succession: Takayuki Mikami, twice All Japan Champion, went first to Kansas City and
later to New Orleans; Yutaka Yaguchi was assigned to Denver after a brief stay in Los Angeles; and Hirokazu Kanazawa, also
twice All Japan Champion, brought the JKA to Hawaii. Kanazawa was replaced after two years by Masataka Mori, who ultimately
went to New York, relinquishing the Hawaii province to Tetsuhiko Asai. Shojiro Sugiyama, not a graduate of the instructor
program, founded a strong organization in Chicago. Later arrivals were Masaaki Ueki and Shigeru Takashina in Florida, Katsuya
Kisaka in New Jersey, and Shojiro Koyama in Arizona.
By the mid-1970s, American students were themselves achieving instructor status. The most senior
of these, and the most successful, was Robert Fusaro of Minneapolis. Other notables include Robert Graves of Oregon, Greer
Golden of Ohio, Ray Dalke, Frank Smith, and James Yabe of California, and Gerald Evans of Philadelphia.
The All America Karate Federation (now the American Amateur Karate Federation) finally opened
its doors to non-JKA karate people in the late 1960s, but too late to salvage an American karate unified under the guidance
of the JKA. Indeed, internal strife led in the 1970's to a split in the organization, with master Okazaki spearheading a separate
JKA organization, the International Shotokan Karate Federation. Both organizations continue to prosper, but there is no indication
Outside the U.S. the JKA is stronger as an international organization. Taiji Kase, from the
European branch in Paris, oversees Hideki Ochi in Germany, Hiroshi Shirai in Italy, Keinosuke Enoeda in Great Britain, and
Satoshi Miyazaki in Belgium. JKA is represented around the world by Higashino in Brazil, Ishiyama in Venezuela, Stan Schmidt
(the first non-Japanese 5th dan) in South Africa, Hideki Okamoto in Syria and Lebanon, Tanaka in Denmark, Sasaki in the Philippines,
Hiroshi Matsaura in Mexico, and others. JKA Shotokan karate-do is now practiced daily by approximately 5,000,000 people in
almost every country in the world.
While the JKA has led the way in internationalizing karate, still there is a large, unaffiliated
contingent practicing Gichin Funakoshi's karate. Several of Funakoshi's best pupils chose to leave the Shotokan altogether
and develop their own, eclectic systems. Notable among these are Ryosuke Konishi, who founded the shindo-linen-ryu (commonly
known as the Ryobukan), and Hironishi Ohtsuka, who developed wado-ryu.
But the most significant faction outside the JKA has grown from the unmollified Old Boys in
Japan. Prior to leaving the JKA, Isao Obata, head of the Old Boys at Keio University, was instrumental in organizing the Zen
Nihon Gakusei Karate-do Renmei (All Japan Shotokan karate is noted for its wide, strong stances, as demonstrated by Italian
karate champion Falsoni.
(University Students Karate League). This organization hoped to unite collegiate practitioners
from all styles. Ultimately, it evolved into a loose structure sheltering disaffected Shotokan students who wished to pursue
their art free from the directives of the JKA. They called themselves the Shotokai, and their principal leaders included Shigeru
Egami and Genshin Hironishi of Chuo University, and Hiroshi Noguchi at Waseda. It was from Waseda University that Tsutomu
Oshima came to the U.S. in 1956 and founded Shotokan Karate of America. Hirokazu Kanazawa broke with the JKA in the 1970s,
establishing Shotokan Karate International. Among the famous practitioners who remained within the JKA are: Minoru Miyata,
Osamu Ozawa and Junpei Sugano of Hosei, Kimio Ito, Motokun Sugiura, and Hiroshi Shoji.
Technically, there are some gaps between JKA Shotokan and the Shotokai; practically, the gaps
are very narrow. While most of the Shotokai groups still regularly practice the taikyoku and ten-no-kata that were so dear
to Funakoshi, the JKA has abandoned them as repetitious and of questionable value. Stances among most of the Shotokai groups
are generally higher than those seen in the JKA, and there is relatively little emphasis on free-style sparring in Shotokai
dojo. From about 1960 forward, the JKA has pursued the study of karate from a scientific viewpoint-body mechanics, kinesiology,
anatomy, physics, and modern psychology. This, contend most of the Shotokai people, is unnecessary and detrimental to the
traditional ways taught by Funakoshi. Each group continues to insist that it practices karate exactly as Funakoshi would practice
it were he alive today. The present authors, based on the writings of the master, lean toward the JKA claim. Funakoshi frequently
said that karate was an unfinished art; it would continue to grow and change, he said, as man's knowledge and circumstances
grew and changed.
|Mar 6, 1921
||When Emperor Hirohito was still the Crown Prince and visited Okinawa
en-route to a visit to Europe, Gichin Funakoshi led a public performance of karate, which was performed by students of Naha
First High School at the Grand Hall of Shuri Castle in front of the Emperor.
||The Shoto-kai Chairman|
The first chairman :
Funakoshi (1936 - 1957)
The vice-chairman :
Gigo Funakoshi (1936 - 1945)
The second chairman :
(1957 - 1961)
The third chairman :
Motonobu Hironishi (1995 - 1999)
|May 6, 1922
||Gichin Funakoshi travelled to Tokyo from Okinawa to attend the First
Budo and Physical Education Exhibition sponsored by the Ministry of Education, and introduced karate (an art typical of Okinawa).
He gave lectures and demonstrations in various places in Tokyo under the name of "Karate Kenkyukai".|
||Master Gichin Funakoshi changed the name " (Chinese hands)" to " (empty hands)".
||The Shoto-kai President|
The first president :
Kato (1936 - 1943)
The second president :
Motonobu Hironishi (1962 - 1995)
The third president :
(1995 - )
||Dai-nihon Karate-do Kenkyukai was established by Master Gichin Funakoshi
to promote communication and information exchange among people who study karate-do.|
||Dai-nippon Karate-do Kenkyukai changed its name to Dai-nippon Karete-do
|Jan 29, 1939
||Shoto-kan Dojo was built in Zoshigaya, Toshima-ku. Master Funakoshi
originated ten-no kata, Taikyoku shodan, ni-dan, and san-dan, and kumite kata, and kon-no kata Matukaze.
||The Shoto-kan Principal|
The first principal :
Gichin Funakoshi (1939 - 1945)
The second principal :
Shigeru Egami (1976 - 1981)
The third principal :
Takagi (1995 - )
|Apr 29, 1945
||Shoto-kan Dojo burnt down during the great air raid on Tokyo.|
||Dai-nihon Karate-do Shoto-kai and Dai-nippon Karate-do Shoto-kan
were reorganized into the present Nihon Karate-do Shoto-kai.|
||The main office was built in Jinbo-cho, Chiyoda-ku, for the first
time after the burning down of Shoto-kan. |
|Jan 18, 1976
||Main Dojo Shoto-kan was built in Shibaura, Minato-ku. |
||A public karate performance was given to celebrate the fifth anniversary
of the new Shoto-kan. |
||A public karate performance was given to celebrate the tenth anniversary
||The book "Shoto-kan Saiken 10 Shunen Kinen Ronbunshu" has published.|
||A public karate performance was given to celebrate the 50th anniversary
||The book "Shoto-kan 50 nen no Ayumi" has published.|
||A public karate performance was given to celebrate the 70th anniversary
of Gichin Funakoshi spreading karate-do in the main islands of Japan.
||The book "Funakoshi Gichin Sensei Hondo Karate Fukyu 70
Shunen Kinen" has published.|
|Apr 22, 1995
||Motonobu Hironishi became the Chairman of Japan Karate-do Shoto-kai.
Jotaro Takagi became the President and the Principal of Shoto-kan.|
||The 10th youth public karate performance was given to celebrate the
130th anniversary of Master Gichin's birth and the 60th anniversary of Shoto-kan.|
|Aug 27, 1998
||A memorial tree "Pine of Thanks" was planted to celebrate the 130th
anniversary of Master Gichin's birth at Sueyoshi Park, Naha.|
||A public karate performance and a ceremony was held to celebrate
the 130th anniversary of Master Gichin's birth and the 60th anniversary of Shoto-kan.
||The book "Shoto-kan 60 nen no Ayumi" has published in commemoration
of the 130th anniversary of Master Gichin's birth.|
|Nov 16, 2001
||Shoto-kai registered a trademark (trademark Nos. 4521545 and 4521546 of Class 41).|
||A public karate performance was given to celebrate the 80th anniversary
of Master Gichin Funakoshi spreading karate-do in the main islands of Japan.|
|The end of Sep, 2003
||Shoto-kan, on the second floor of Kashiwagi Building, 1-4-2 Shibaura
Minato-ku, was closed.|
|Aug 1, 2003
||Shoto-kan was opened at 2-1-7 Kikukawa Sumida-ku.|
. Gigo Funakoshi (1906 - 1945)
Gigo is the third son of Gichin Funakoshi, and moved from Okinawa to Tokyo to live with his
father when he was 17. Gigo became a radiographer of the Section of Physical and Medical Consultation of the Ministry of Education.
Takeshi Shimoda, who was karate shihan-dai teaching in various universities, passed away, Gigo assumed his position and kept
in touch with the universities.
Technically, Gigo was a faithful successor of Gichin and improved and developed moves.
played the central role in inventing Taikyoku no kata, kumite ten-no kata, and kon no kata "matsukaze", and in formualting
and establishing technical systems of Shoto-kai karate-do.
Gigo led the construction of Dai-nihon Karte-do Shoto-kan
. Giei Funakoshi (1900 - 1961)
Giei Funakoshi is the first son of Gichin Funakoshi. After Gigo died still young and Gichin passed away,
karate became simply a fighting sport, ignoring the words of Gichin. Giei deplored the situation and succeeded in teaching
the karate-do of Gichin after becoming the second chairman of Nihon Karate-do Shoto-kai.
Giei emphasized the importance
of reconstructing Shoto-kan dojo as a technical center and as a place of training. Giei passed away before the new dojo was
built, but laid the foundation for its construction.