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R.I.Shoju-kempo ryu Sentou ryu Karate-do Hombu Dojo

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History of Martial Arts

 

Karate

Karate (Japanese: "empty hand"), unarmed-combat system employing kicking, striking, and defensive blocking with arms and legs. Emphasis is on concentration of as much of the body's power as possible at the point and instant of impact. Striking surfaces include the hands (particularly the knuckles and the outer edge), the ball of the foot, heel, forearm, knee, and elbow. All are toughened by practice blows against padded surfaces or wood. Pine boards up to several inches in thickness can be broken by the bare hand or foot of an expert. Timing, tactics, and spirit, however, are each considered at least as important as physical toughening. In sporting karate and sparring (kumite) in training, blows and kicks are stopped short, preferably within an inch of contact. Sporting matches commonly last only three minutes, to a decision, if neither contestant has scored a clean "killing" point in the estimation of the judges. Contests of form (kata) are also held, in which single competitors perform predetermined series of movements simulating defense and counterattack against several opponents. Performances are scored by a panel of judges, as in gymnastics. Karate evolved in the Orient over a period of centuries, becoming systematized in Okinawa in the 17th century, probably by people forbidden to carry weapons. It was imported into Japan in the 1920s. Several schools and systems developed, each favouring somewhat different techniques and training methods. Karate, like other Oriental fighting disciplines, stresses mental attitude, rituals of courtesy, costumes, and a complex ranking system (by colour of belt). There is some overlapping of technique with other fighting styles.

 

Jujutsu/Jujitsu

Jujutsu was never a martial art! It is originally a term for the soft skill techniques. It was not until the Japanese traditional arts came to the Americas that Jujutsu/Jujitsu became a martial art's name as in for instance "Brazilian Jujitsu". Before there where no Jujutsu/Jujitsu schools in Japan.

Aikido

Aikido (Japanese: "way of spiritual harmony"), (originally derived from the Japanese soft style techniques termed jujutsu/jujitsu) self-defense system that utilizes twisting and throwing techniques and in its aim of turning an attacker's strength and momentum against himself. Pressure on vital nerve centres is also used. Aikido was developed to subdue, rather than maim or kill as in Karate, but many of its movements can nevertheless be deadly. Aikido especially emphasizes the importance of achieving complete mental calm and control of one's own body to master an opponent's attack. As in other Jjapanese martial arts, the development of courtesy and respect is an integral part of Aikido training. The basic skills of aikido come originated in Japan in about the 14th century. In the early 20th century they were systematized in their modern form through the work of the Japanese DaiToRyu Yawara( AiKi JuJitsu) expert Morei Ueshiba. There are no offensive moves in aikido. As taught by Ueshiba, it was so purely defensive an art that no direct contest between practitioners was possible. In 1969 the founder morei Ueshiba passed away. And so the 2nd generation "doshu" became Kissomaru Ueshiba (son of Morei Ueshiba) (1969 -1997). From 1997 to present time the 3rd doshu has been Moriteru Ueshiba. In present time hundreds of schools and organizations has broken away from the original teachings.

Kendo

Japanese KENDO ("way of the sword"), traditional Japanese style of fencing with a two-handed wooden sword, derived from the fighting methods of the ancient samurai (warrior class). The unification of Japan about 1600 removed most opportunities for actual sword combat, so the samurai turned swordsmanship into a means of cultivating discipline, patience, and skill for building character. In the 18th century, practice armour and the shinai, a sword made of bamboo, were introduced to allow realistic fencing without risk of injury. The study of what came to be known as kendo was even compulsory in Japanese schools from time to time. An All-Japan Kendo Federation was formed following the end of the occupation in 1952, and an International Kendo Federation was founded in 1970. Kendo matches take place in an area 9 to 11 m (about 30 to 36 feet) square. Contestants wear the traditional uwagi (jacket), hakama (long divided skirt), do (chest protector), tare (waist protector), men (mask), and kote (padded gloves). The shinai varies from 43 to 46 inches (110 to 118 cm) in length and is made of four lengths of seasoned bamboo bound by waxed cord. All blows use the "cutting" edge of the shinai, though this is not sharp. The shinai is usually held with both hands. Points are awarded for blows delivered upon the left side, right side, or top of the head; the right or left wrist; the right or left side of the trunk; and for a thrust to the throat. These are the only scoring areas. The name of the point struck must be called out simultaneously by the attacker with his blow and is verified by judges. A contest is won by the first combatant who scores two points. Kendo is widely practiced among students (required in high schools), police, and military groups in Japan and to a lesser extent in the United States, Canada, Great Britain, and Brazil.

Judo

Japanese JUDO (from Chinese: "gentle way"), system of unarmed combat, now primarily a sport, was, as Aikido, derived from the Japanese soft style techniques termed Jujutsu/Jujitsu. Sporting judo rules are complex; the objective is to throw the opponent cleanly, or pin him, or master him by applying pressure to arm joints or to the neck. Techniques are generally intended to turn an opponent's force to one's own advantage rather than to oppose it directly. A ritual of courtesy in practice is intended to promote an attitude of calm readiness and confidence. The usual costume, known as judogi, is a loose jacket and trousers of strong white cloth. White belts are worn by novices and black by masters, with intermediate grades denoted by other colours. Kano Jigoro (1860-1938) collected the knowledge of the old jujitsu schools of the Japanese samurai and in 1882 founded his Kodokan School of judo, the beginning of the sport in its modern form. By the 1960s judo associations had been established in most countries and affiliated to the International Judo Federation with headquarters in Paris. Judo was included in Olympic Games competition for the first time at Tokyo in 1964 and held regularly from 1972. World judo championships for women began in 1980. Women's Olympic competition began in 1992.